Numerous people with the last name Paleologus are recorded in Venice in the 15th and 16th centuries, many serving as stratioti (mercenary light-armed cavalrymen of Greek or Albanian origin). , The Venetian Palaiologoi were not related to the imperial family, but they might have been distant cousins. There, they faced a dilemma. According to several later oral traditions, the family had originated in Italy, supposedly in the city of Viterbo. The situation was so dire that Manuel left Constantinople to travel around Western Europe asking for further aid against the Ottomans, visiting Italy, France and England. On account of his young age, Theodore was exiled from Pesaro rather than executed. He encouraged a reform of the law courts and promoted commercial independence from the Genoese and Venetians by initiating a large shipbuilding project. John V was the son of Emperor Andronikos III and his wife Anna, the daughter of Count Amadeus V of Savoy by his second wife Maria of Brabant. Many of his subjects had chastized him as a traitor and heretic while he lived and he, like many of his predecessors before him, died in communion with the Church of Rome. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. To the Byzantine citizens themselves, the Union of the Churches, which to John VIII served as an assurance of a great western crusade against the Ottomans, was a death warrant for their empire.  Despite Michael VIII's efforts, the union was disrupted in 1281, after just seven years, when he was excommunicated by Pope Martin IV. John V Palaiologos, Byzantine Emperor, was born 18 June 1332 to Andronikos III Palaiologos (1297-1341) and Anne de Savoie (1306-1359) and died 16 February 1391 of unspecified causes. Andreas Palaeologus in Rome, 1465-1502", "El fin de Constantinopla y las supuestas herencias nobiliarias bizantinas", "Su alcune discendenze moderne dei Paleologi di Bisanzio", "The Palaiologos Family After 1453: The Destiny of an Imperial Family", Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, Prosopographisches Lexikon der Palaiologenzeit, "Les premiers Paléologues. A handful of sources suggest that John VII sometimes used the name Andronikos, possibly to honour the memory of his father, Andronikos IV Palaiologos. The Palaiologos (pl. John V Palaiologos (or Palaeologus) (Greek: Ίωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος, Iōannēs V Palaiologos) (18 June 1332 – 16 February 1391) was a Byzantine emperor, who succeeded his father in 1341, at age nine.  An expedition to "recover" these territories was never organized. The emperor's excommunication was not lifted until nine years into his reign, upon the appointment of Patriarch Joseph I. In 1373, John V's son and heir Andronikos IV Palaiologos rebelled against his father in an attempt to seize the throne, instigating a fourth series of Palaiologan civil wars.  The ancestry of the Paleologu can be traced to Greeks with the name Palaiologos, but not to the imperial family.  In 1599, he entered into the service of Henry Clinton, the Earl of Lincoln, in England. Some, such as Theophilos Palaiologos, lost their lives in the battle, whereas others were taken prisoner and executed. Demetrios drew support for his opposition to the union between the Orthodox and Catholic churches. For 57 years, Constantinople had been under Catholic rule through the Latin Empire and now the easterners had once more asserted their right not only to the position of Roman emperor but also to a church independent of the one centered in Rome. Family. , In addition to the John Palaiologos of the Pesaro genealogy, some Italian genealogies from the 17th century onwards ascribe further sons to Thomas Palaiologos, notably a supposed older son by the name Rogerio or Ruggerio.  The presence of double-headed eagle symbols in the Spirito Santo church has been used as an argument in the past, but this symbol was not unique to the Palaiologoi, being used as a symbol by other families as well (both Byzantine and Western).  According to Russian sources, he might also have had a daughter, Maria Palaiologina, who married a Russian prince. John II also pointed out that since Andronikos II had disinherited Andronikos III, John II was thus the rightful emperor as the only true heir to Andronikos II. , The Byzantine aristocracy were less than eager of sending one of Andronikos II's sons to claim Montferrat. They had at least six children -- four sons and at least two daughters. He regained Constantinople in February 1347 with Turkish help, and was crowned co-emperor with John V in May.  Following his exile, Theodore established himself as an assassin and appears to have garnered an impressive reputation.  In an effort to extort money from Mehmed, Constantine implicitly threatened to release Orhan Çelebi, Mehmed's cousin and the only other known living member of the Ottoman dynasty (and as such a potential rival to Mehed), who was held prisoner in Constantinople. A cadet branch in Italy, the Palaeologus-Montferrat, ruled the March of Montferrat until 1536 and died out in 1566. Because the family was extensive before it produced emperors, the name Palaiologos was legitimately held not only by nobles part of the actual imperial dynasty. In the meantime, John VI Kantakouzenos attempted to consolidate his own dynasty on the imperial throne, marrying his daughter Helena to John V and proclaiming his son Matthew Kantakouzenos as co-emperor.  Mehmed was victorious and annexed the region directly into the Ottoman Empire, ending Palaiologan rule in Greece. , There was peace between the Palaiologans and the Ottomans until 1421, when Mehmed I died and Manuel retired from state affairs, to pursue scholarly and religious interests. The sultan generously received him and Manuel stayed in Constantinople for the rest of his life.  Thus, the male line of the imperial branch of the House of Palaiologos probably went extinct at some point in the early 16th century. The Phanariots sent to Wallachia and Moldavia included people with the last name Palaiologos, ancestors of the Paleologu family. That he could marry a genuine member of the noble Kantakouzenos family indicates that he held a certain noble status. , Michael Palaiologos, born in 1223, was the son of Andronikos Palaiologos, megas domestikos in the Empire of Nicaea. John was chief adviser to Andronicus III Palaeologus, having helped him gain the throne from his grandfather Andronicus II. The contemporary historian George Sphrantzes, who described the life of Thomas Palaiologos in detail, wrote on the birth of Andreas Palaiologos on 17 January 1453 that the boy was "a continuator and heir" of the Palaiologan lineage, a phrase which makes little sense if Andreas was not Thomas's first-born son. Allatius was the keeper of the Vatican Library and would have had access to its vast collection of books and records and might have deduced his findings from there.  Byzantine fears of Latinization became true; Theodore converted to Catholicism and on his visits to Constantinople, Theodore schocked the Byzantines with his shaven face and Western customs.  This group stood in close contact with two powerful viziers, Mesih Pasha and Hass Murad Pasha, both of whom were reportedly nephews to Constantine XI Palaiologos and had been forced to covert to Islam after Constantinople's fall, as well as with other converted scions of Byzantine and Balkan aristocratic families like Mahmud Pasha Angelović, forming what the Ottomanist Halil İnalcık termed a "Greek faction" at the court of Mehmed II. In 1478, Theodore travelled to Venice with his father, Paul, and became a stratiote. In the eyes of the Orthodox church, Constantine's death sanctified him and he died a hero. , Supposedly, Rogerio's descendants would then have remained in Casalsottano until 1571, when Giovanni Paleologo was given the fief of Perito and Ostigliano in Salerno. While he was Emperor, there is evidence showing he used the name Andronikos, after his father, although when he was regent during his Constantine XI died fighting in its defense.  He is last attested in the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (r. 1520–1566) and is not believed to have had children of his own. Omissions? , Thomas had four children; Helena, Zoe, Andreas and Manuel. As late as the 19th century, after the Greek War of Independence had resulted in the creation of a new independent Greek state, the provisional government of liberated Greece sent a delegation to Western Europe in search of possible descendants of those imperial Palaiologoi that had escaped into exile. George served as the doux of Dyrrhachium in the reign of Alexios I and was accorded the title of kouropalates. S. Bendall (“A Note on the Hyperpyra of John V and VI (1347–1354),” 297, siglon C) shows at lower right, while this one has a ligature of and .This coin may have come from the hoard first mentioned by Bendall in “A Hyperpyron of Andronicus III and John V (A.D. 1341)?” He succeeded his father as Byzantine Emperor in 1341, at age nine. As such, many of them escaped into Western Europe either before or after the Morea fell in 1460. Andronikos III secured the support of a significant number of the aristocracy and a period of civil war, not ended until 1328, ensued. , It is possible that many of the modern people who bear the name are descended from wealthy Greeks in the Ottoman period, who commonly assumed Byzantine surnames and claimed descent from the famous noble houses of their Byzantine past.  Though such Palaiologoi, imperial or not, were mainly concentrated in northern Italy, such as in Pesaro, Viterbo or Venice, other Greek refugees travelled across Europe, many ending up in Rome, Naples, Milan, Paris or in various cities in Spain. , Some nobles with the last name Palaiologos remained in Ottoman Constantinople, and even prospered in the immediate post-conquest period. Disputes between John V's mother Anna of Savoy and the Patriarch John XIV on one side and Andronikos III's friend and megas domestikos John Kantakouzenos on the other led to a new and devastating civil war, lasting until 1347 and won by John Kantakouzenos, who became senior co-emperor as John VI.  Michael's son and successor Andronikos II wished to further legitimize the rule of the Palaiologan dynasty.  Nothing is known of Godscall's life, the only record of her existence being her baptismal records. Their own medieval origin stories ascribed them an ancient and prestigious origin in ancient Roman Italy, descended from some of the Romans that had accompanied Constantine the Great to Constantinople upon its foundation in 330.  Michael seized the guardianship of the child emperor and was invested with the titles of megas doux and despotes.  The ongoing civil war, and the possibility that Thomas could receive aid from the West since he had proclaimed the war against his brother as a holy war against the muslims, caused Mehmed to invade the Morea in 1460. , In the 12th century, the Palaiologoi are mainly recorded as members of the military aristocracy, not occupying any administrative political offices.  The refugees were helped in that many in Western Europe would have been unaware of the intricacies of Byzantine naming customs; to Western Europeans, the name Palaiologos meant the imperial dynasty. It is more likely that they originated significantly later in Anatolia since the earliest known member of the family, possibly its founder, Nikephoros Palaiologos, served as a commander there in the second half of the 11th century. Though Constantine XI died in communion with Rome (and thus as a "heretic"), his death in battle against the Ottomans, defending Constantinople, made the Greeks and the Orthodox church remember him as a hero, redeeming popular opinion of the dynasty as a whole. Behold how our merciful and omniscient Lord has managed to preserve the integrity of our holy Orthodox faith and to save (us) all; he brought forth out of nothing the powerful Empire of the Ottomans, which he set up in the place of our Empire of the Romaioi, which had begun in some ways to deviate from the path of the Orthodox faith; and he raised this Empire of the Ottomans above every other in order to prove beyond doubt that it came into being by the will of God .... For there is no authority except that deriving from God. The Popes in the immediate aftermath of the Latin Empire's fall pursued a policy of attempting to assert their religious authority over the Byzantine Empire.  Another version of the Palaiologos origin story maintained that they had ancient Roman origin and that they were descended from Romans who had travelled to Constantinople alongside Constantine the Great when the city was founded and designated as the Roman Empire's new capital in 330. , Though Michael's successor Andronikos II quickly repudiated the Union of the Churches, many of the Palaiologan emperors worked to ensure its restoration. On the death of the emperor in 1341, John Kantakouzenos was left as the designated regent, and guardian of John's son John V Palaiologos, who was nine years old. The Greeks forgot or ignored that Constantine had died a "heretic", many considering him a martyr.  Many of the non-imperial Byzantine Palaiologoi were part of the nobility and served as generals or powerful landowners. None of their own contemporaries appear to have doubted their imperial descent. , Ferdinand died in 1670 and was survived only by his son, Theodore. John VII Palaiologos was the son of Emperor Andronikos IV Palaiologos and Keratsa of Bulgaria, a daughter of Emperor Ivan Alexander of Bulgaria and Theodora of Wallachia. To avoid infighting, their mother Helena Dragaš decided that Constantine was to be the next emperor. Common versions of the last name used today include the standard Palaiologos (approximately 1,800 people, most common in Greece), Palaiologou (approximately 2,000 people, again most common in Greece), Paleologos (approximately 500 people, most common in the United States but present worldwide) and Paleologo (approximately 250 people, most common in Italy). It was he who guided the empire’s policies during the reign of Andronicus III (1328–41). In 1284, Michael's son and successor Andronikos II Palaiologos visited the blinded and then 33-year-old John IV during a journey in Anatolia, hoping to demonstrate his disapproval with his father's actions. Other crusader states had been formed in Greece as a result of the Fourth Crusade, notably the Kingdom of Thessalonica, which had been ruled by the Aleramici family of Montferrat. Though the Palaiologos name was not passed on, many of them used the double-headed eagle iconography of Byzantium.  Michael VIII was taunted with the words "you have become a Frank", which remains a term in Greek to taunt converts to Catholicism to this day. Some Byzantine refugees, such as historian George Sphrantzes, recognized Andreas as the rightful heir of the old emperors. The Montferrat cadet branch (descendants of Theodore, son of Emperor Andronikos II) is not shown.  Theodore lived in England for the rest of his life and fathered six children, whose fates were caught up in the English Civil War of 1642–1651.  After a 53-day long siege, the city finally fell to the Ottomans on 29 May 1453.  As the oldest son, Andreas was recognized by the Papacy as Thomas's heir and the rightful Despot of the Morea. John V married Helena Kantakouzene, daughter of his co-emperor John VI Kantakouzenos and Irene Asanina, on 28 May 1347.  Born in 1452, and probably originally from Mystras in the Morea, Theodore was originally a debt collector for the Ottomans in the Morea.  Since Yolande was second-in-line to the throne of the March of Montferrat, the marriage had the unexpected result of creating the possibility that a Byzantine prince might inherit Montferrat. Despite the foreign and domestic difficulties during his reign, which culminated in the fall of Constantinople and of the Byzantine Empire, contemporary sources generally speak respectfully of the Emperor Constantine. , On 25 July 1261, Nicene forces under general Alexios Strategopoulos recaptured Constantinople from the Latin Empire, restoring the city to Byzantine rule after almost sixty years in foreign hands. Over a century had passed since Constantinople, a city Demetri had never seen, had fallen and yet he retained lingering dreams of the city. Commentary. Just a few days after Theodore's death, Michael led a coup against the bureaucrat George Mouzalon, who had been appointed regent by Theodore II. The Paleologu also live in Malta and France, one of the most famous members of the family being the French diplomat Maurice Paléologue, who in his lifetime repeatedly asserted his imperial descent. Manouel II Palaiologos adalah anak kedua dari Kaisar John V Palaiologos (1341–1376, 1379–1390, 1390–1391) dan (istrinya) Helena Kantakouzena. John V Palaiologos, Fossati drawing of mosaic in Hagia Sophia.jpg 1,407 × 1,884; 940 KB John V Palaiologos.jpg 206 × 280; 18 KB John V Roman Emperor.jpg 989 × 498; 180 KB  The potential Palaiologan heir being kept as a hostage in Italy agrees poorly with contemporary Byzantine-Aragonese relations and importantly, no Byzantine historians mentions his existence. John VIII Palaiologos was the eldest son of Manuel II Palaiologos and Helena Dragaš, the daughter of the Serbian prince Constantine Dragaš.He was associated as co-emperor with his father before 1416 and became sole emperor in 1425. Variant used during the joint reign of John V Palaiologos and John VI Kantakouzenos 1347–1354. John VIII had betrayed their faith and as such their entire imperial ideology and world view. John V Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Ίωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος, Iōannēs V Palaiologos; 18 June 1332 – 16 February 1391) was a Byzantine emperor, who succeeded his father in 1341 at age eight. Posted by Powee Celdran. , Beyond Constantine's martyrdom, the Palaiologos dynasty had a lasting impact on the Greeks throughout the centuries of Ottoman rule, having been the last family to govern independent Greek lands. Andronikos IV was the firstborn son of Emperor John V Palaiologos, and had thus been the heir to the throne. They are recorded numerous times as donors to monasteries, and intermarried several times with the Komnenos dynasty during its rule over the Byzantine Empire (1081–1185). The Palaiologan emperors aspired to reunite the Eastern Orthodox Church with the Catholic Church of Rome, to ensure legitimacy in the eyes of the West and in an attempt to secure aid against the many enemies of their empire. According to the genealogies, Rogerio would have been born about 1430 and was supposedly sent to Alfonso the Magnanimous of Aragon and Naples as a hostage to guarantee some treaty with the Byzantines. John V appealed to the Venetians for aid and succeeded in retaking Constantinople in 1354.  Theodore had a son, who probably predeceased him, and was survived only by a posthumous daughter, Godscall Paleologue, born in January 1694. The promised crusade, the fruit of John VIII's labor, ended only in disaster as it was defeated by the Turks at the Battle of Varna in 1444. Additionally, they continued to style themselves as despots of Epirus until the 17th century, when they instead began to title themselves as princes of Achaea. Demetrios surrendered to the Ottomans without a fight and Thomas escaped into exile.  Once news of the act, the blinding of not only the legitimate emperor, but an underage boy, got out, the Patriarch of Constantinople, Arsenios Autoreianos, excommunicated Michael. , In the aftermath of Constantinople's fall, one of the most pressing threats to the new Ottoman regime was the possibility that one of Constantine XI's relatives would secure support and return to reclaim the empire. While he was Emperor, there is evidence showing he used the name Andronikos, after his father, although when he was regent during his brother's absence in the West, he governed in his birth name. , In 1578, the members of the family living in Pesaro were embroiled in a scandal as brothers Leonidas and Scipione Paleologus, and their nephew Theodore, were arrested for attempted murder.  The only Marquis to seriously consider using his Byzantine connection was Theodore's son, John II of Montferrat, who wished to take advantage of the Byzantine civil war of 1341–1347, between Andronikos II's great-grandson John V and John VI Kantakouzenos, in order to invade the empire and conquer Thessaloniki.  Milica and Leonardo had a son; Carlo III Tocco, who succeeded Leonardo as the titular despot. , Another family which claims to descend from the old imperial dynasty are the Paleologu of Romania, claiming to be the descendants of an otherwise unattested son of Theodore II Palaiologos, Despot of the Morea, called Emanuel Petrus (Manuel Petros in Greek). Some, such as historian George Sphrantzes, recognized Andreas as the titular despot Orthodox church San! Its weakest point in history, and the empire underwent significant economical political... [ 8 ] Theodore II died in 1532, [ 79 ] many of escaped... To act with hostility against them editors will review what you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise article... Was survived only by his eight-year-old son John IV being present his opposition to the Ottoman empire for the.! Succeeded his father as Byzantine emperors, the only known living descendants of Jerina Gjon. 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